III. Accounting policies

Basis for the preparation of the financial statements

The consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the assumption that the company constitutes a going concern based on historical purchase and manufacturing costs, limited by the measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities at fair value through profit or loss.

Where indications exist of potential value impairment (so-called triggering events), a corresponding review is conducted based on the recoverable amount. As part of such impairment tests, fair values are also taken into consideration to calculate the lower value limit for individual assets. Valuation surveys for land and buildings, among other inputs, can also be applied in this context. If the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount, impairment losses are recognized against the assets to write them down to their recoverable amount.

Use of assumptions and estimates

In the financial statements, estimates and assumptions have to be made to a certain extent that affect the level and reporting of assets and liabilities, expenses and income, and contingent liabilities. All estimates and assumptions are continuously reassessed and are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that are believed to be appropriate under the given circumstances.

Assumptions and estimates relate in particular to:

  • evaluating the capitalization of development expenditures (no development costs were capitalized in the financial year under review, and none were capitalized in the previous year),
  • the (non-) capitalization of deferred taxes relating to tax loss carryforwards,
  • measuring the useful life of intangible assets and of property, plant and equipment,
  • identifying potential asset impairments (particularly goodwill and inventories),
  • the measurement and reporting of put options for the acquisition of non-controlling interests (in particular with regard to the exercise dates. See also “Valuation risks connected with foreign currency put option agreements” in this document),
  • the measurement of share-based compensation schemes,
  • the determination of the transaction price and the date of revenue recognition according to IFRS 15,
  • the determination of the amount of impairment of trade receivables in accordance with IFRS 9,
  • the determination of present values for lease liabilities using a marginal borrowing rate,
  • the assessment of possible utilization of contract extension options under IFRS 16,
  • the formation of provisions depending on the assessment of event risk.

The key assumptions and inputs for the estimates made by management are explained in the disclosures on the respective line items. The resulting amounts may differ from the actual amounts.

Currency translation

Translation of foreign currency transactions

Cash and cash equivalents as well as receivables and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the closing rate. Currency translation differences are recognized in profit or loss. Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are reported applying the currency rate on the date of the respective transaction. The risk assessment of currency exchange rate differences that are recognized through profit or loss occurs on a net basis. The net results from translation differences are immaterial in total.

Translation of foreign Group companies’ financial statements

In the case of foreign Group companies, the functional currency is the respective local currency, as the companies operate independently in financial, business and organizational terms. The foreign companies’ assets and liabilities are translated into euros at the closing rate on the reporting date. Income and expenses are translated into euros at the average exchange rates for the year. Equity components are translated at historical exchange rates on the respective acquisition dates from the Group’s perspective. The translation difference compared with the closing rates is recognized directly in equity under “Other reserves”.

The exchange rates against the euro report the following changes:

Rate/€ Closing rate Average rate
Currency Country 2022/23 2021/22 2022/23 2021/22
GBP UK 1.1566 1.1394 1.1488 1.1799
USD USA 0.9439 1.0202 0.9367 0.9245

Revenue recognition

The revenue reported in the consolidated income statement relates to revenue from contracts with customers in accordance with IFRS 15. The BRAIN Biotech Group recognizes revenue in accordance with the IFRS 15 transfer of control approach.

Revenue is measured on the basis of the consideration specified in the contract with a customer, taking into consideration variable consideration such as cash discounts, volume-related rebates and other contractual price reductions. The variable consideration is estimated based on the most probable amount. However, variable consideration is only taken into consideration if it is highly probable that a significant reversal in revenue will not arise once the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration no longer exists. In addition, the determination of the transaction price requires discretionary decisions and estimates in light of uncertainties typical of the sector, which are associated with future milestone and license payments. These discretionary decisions relate to the valuation of the inclusion of milestone payments in the transaction price. Accordingly, milestones are included in the transaction price only if it is highly probable that they will be reached.

Revenue is recognized when control, in other words, the possibility of deriving benefit from the service rendered and of determining its further use, is transferred. This can occur either at a specific time or over a period of time. Revenue is recognized over a period of time if one of the following criteria is met:

  • Upon fulfilment by the company, the customer receives the benefit of the service rendered and utilizes it at the same time.
  • With its work, the company produces or improves an asset over which the customer has control during the production or improvement.
  • With its work, the company generates an asset that cannot be used by the company for other purposes; in doing so, the company has a claim for payment for the services rendered to date and can also expect the contract to be fulfilled as agreed.

If the performance obligation is not fulfilled over a period of time, it is fulfilled at a given point in time. The following factors are considered in order to determine the point in time at on which control is transferred:

  • the Group currently has the right to receive payment for the asset,
  • the customer has legal ownership of the asset,
  • the company has transferred the asset physically (in other words, ownership of the asset),
  • the significant risks and rewards entailed in ownership of the asset lie with the customer, and
  • the customer has accepted the asset.
Sale of goods/products

Revenue from the sale of products is recognized when control of a promised product is transferred in accordance with Incoterms agreed with customers. This is usually when the delivery has reached the customer.

Rendering of services

Revenues from rendering services arise mainly from research and development partnerships and are generated predominantly in the BioScience segment. Related one-off payments (mostly to be paid by customers when agreements are concluded) are analyzed on the date of receipt as to whether they relate to one-off payments for pre-contractual services that transfer to the customer and that are distinct. To the extent that this is the case, revenue is recognized immediately. R&D revenues are also recognized in the period in which the underlying services are rendered. This generally occurs in accordance with the progress of the transfer of the R&D services by applying the cost-to-cost method, as well as the milestones achieved as at the balance sheet date. The cost-to-cost method is best suited for measuring percentage of completion, as the R&D services’ product is realized on the basis of the employees it deploys.

Royalties and license fees

Revenues from royalties (license agreements) are recognized in the period in which they accrue according to the terms of the underlying contract. As a matter of principle, revenue-based fees are not recognized until the customer realizes the corresponding sales revenues. In the case of licenses, a distinction must be made as to whether the customer acquires with the license a right-of-use (revenue recognition on the basis of a given point in time) or a right-of-access (revenue recognition over a period of time). One-off prepaid license payments are recognized immediately (revenue recognition based on a given point in time) if the license grants a right-of-use, and the licensed technology is not developed further (static licenses). One-off prepaid license payments are realized over time (revenue recognition over a period of time) if and to the extent that the license grants access rights to the technology, and the licensed technology is developed further (dynamic licenses).

Financing components are separated from the actual performance if they are classified as material. If the period between the time when BRAIN transfers the promised goods or services to the customer and the time when the customer pays for those goods or services is one year or less, no financing component is taken into consideration. Contractual liabilities are reported as deferred income rather than separately on the balance sheet. Separate disclosure is made in section (23) Deferred income.

Intangible assets

Acquired intangible assets, with the exception of goodwill and capitalized development costs, are measured at cost less straight-line amortization over their useful economic lives. Cost consists of directly attributable costs. The useful lives and depreciation methods are reviewed each year and modified if necessary. The useful lives applied by the Group are as follows:

Useful life in years
Genetic resources 2 – 8
Software and industrial property rights 2 – 15
Customer relationships acquired as part of a corporate acquisition 8 – 11
Technology acquired as part of a corporate acquisition 10 – 12

Research and development

Research costs are recognized as expenses in the period in which they are incurred. In accordance with IAS 38.53 and IAS 38.57, development expenditures are capitalized if the following criteria are met:

  • It is technically feasible for the entity to complete the intangible asset so that it will be available for use or sale.
  • The entity intends to complete the intangible asset and use or sell it.
  • The entity is able to use or sell the intangible asset.
  • How the intangible asset will generate probable future economic benefits can be demonstrated. Inter alia, the entity can substantiate the existence of a market for the output of the intangible asset or the intangible asset itself or, if it is to be used internally, the intangible asset’s utility.
  • The availability of adequate technical, financial, and other resources to complete development, and use or sell the intangible asset.
  • The entity is able to reliably measure the expenditure attributable to the intangible asset during its development.

Not all of these criteria were met in the financial year, so that all expenditure connected with research and development activities was recognized as expenses as incurred.

Property, plant and equipment

Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost and depreciated to reflect any wear and tear. The straight-line depreciation method is applied.

The depreciation period is based on the asset’s expected useful economic life. Impairment losses and depreciation charges are recognized if no further, or fewer, economic benefits are expected from the asset’s continued use or sale. Gains or losses on the disposal of items of property, plant and equipment are calculated by comparing the net disposal proceeds with the asset’s carrying amount and recognized in profit or loss in the period in which the asset is derecognized.

Depreciation charges are based mainly on the following useful lives:

Useful life in years
Buildings and outdoor facilities 10 – 50
Vehicle fleet 3 – 6
Laboratory equipment, operating and office equipment 1 – 15

Impairment tests

Goodwill and other intangible assets with an indefinite or indeterminable useful life are tested at least once per year for impairment. Intangible assets and items of property, plant and equipment with finite or indeterminable useful lives are only tested for impairment if indications exist that the asset has become impaired. An impairment loss is recognized in profit or loss in the consolidated statement of comprehensive income if the asset’s recoverable amount, in other words, the higher of its fair value less costs of disposal and its value-in-use, is less than its carrying amount. The recoverable amount is generally determined individually for each asset. If this is not possible, it is determined based on a group of assets representing a cash-generating unit (CGU). An assessment is made at least once a year whether any indication exists that the reason for an impairment loss recognized in prior periods no longer applies or the amount of the impairment has decreased. If this is the case, the asset’s recoverable amount is remeasured, and the impairment loss is reversed accordingly (except in the case of goodwill).

The starting point for estimating the recoverable amount of the relevant cash-generating unit for the goodwill impairment tests as at 30 September 2023 is its value-in-use, calculated as the present value of the future net cash flows expected to be generated from the CGU. The estimate is based on the current five-year planning of the relevant company. The last planning year is generally also applied for cash flows beyond the planning period and modified considering further assumptions for the perpetual return, to the extent that specific related indications exist. These plans are based on Management Board estimates about future trends that are described further in the description of the individual cash-generating units. Past data and expected market performance are utilized to calculate values-in-use for the cash-generating units. The values allocated to the significant assumptions are generally in line with external information sources in this context.

The cash generating unit’s capital costs are calculated as the weighted average of its equity and debt costs. The capital structure, and equity and debt costs, are based on peer companies from the same sector and are derived from available capital market information.


Raw materials, consumables and supplies as well as unfinished goods and services, are measured at cost. The average cost method is mainly applied, taking into consideration the lower of cost and net realizable value less costs to sell. In addition to direct costs, production costs include appropriate portions of materials and production overheads. Borrowing costs are not capitalized. Write-downs to a lower net realizable value are applied if necessary.

Financial instruments

Financial instruments refer to all contractual relationships that result in a financial asset for one party and a financial liability or equity instrument for the other party. Financial instruments include both non-derivative and derivative financial instruments.

Financial instruments are classified into three categories on initial recognition:

  • at amortized cost (AC),
  • at fair value through equity (through reserves) (FVTOCI),
  • at fair value through profit or loss (FVTPL).

All financial assets and financial liabilities were initially recognized at fair value (with the exception of trade receivables, which are recognized at the transaction price).

When financial assets are measured at fair value, expenses and income are to be recognized, depending on their classification, either in full in the profit or loss for the period (FVTPL) or in other comprehensive income (FVTOCI), with or without subsequent reclassification to the income statement.

The classification is determined when the financial asset is first recognized, in other words, when BRAIN becomes a party to the contractual arrangements for the instrument.

All financial liabilities are recognized at AC, with the exception of financial liabilities (see Note 21 Financial liabilities and VII Financial instruments).

A debt instrument that meets the following two conditions is measured at amortized cost:

  • Business model condition: The objective of the BRAIN Biotech Group’s business model is to hold the financial assets in order to collect the contractual cash flows.
  • Cash flow condition: The contractual terms of the financial asset generate cash flows at specified times that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal outstanding.

A debt instrument that meets the following two conditions is measured at fair value changes recognized in other comprehensive income and subsequent reclassification to the income statement:

  • Business model condition: The objective of the BRAIN Biotech Group’s business model is achieved by both collecting the contractual cash flows from financial assets and by disposing of financial assets.
  • Cash flow condition: The contractual terms of the financial asset generate cash flows at specified times that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal outstanding.

All other debt instruments are measured at fair value with value changes recognized in profit or loss for the period (FVTPL). All equity instruments held are recognized at fair value on the balance sheet. Value changes are recognized in the result for the period. If an equity instrument is not held for trading, BRAIN may make an irrevocable decision upon initial recognition to measure it at fair value, with value changes recognized in other comprehensive income. Subsequent reclassification to the income statement is excluded in this case.

Financial assets are generally only derecognized if no prospect of recovery exists, such as if enforcement has been unsuccessful, insolvency proceedings have been discontinued for lack of assets, or the debt is now statute-barred. No further enforcement actions are taken subsequently. Financial assets whose terms were amended because they would otherwise have been overdue or impaired did not exist in the past financial year (as in the previous year).

Debt instruments are derecognized from the consolidated balance sheet when all risks and rewards have been transferred and the related receipt of payment is assured. If not all risks and rewards are transferred, the debt instruments are derecognized when control of the debt instrument is transferred.

Impairment of financial assets

Impairment losses on debt instruments held by the company that are not to be measured at fair value through profit or loss are based on the premise that expected losses must be recognized. These are recorded at the following amounts:

  • the “expected 12-month loss” (present value of expected payment defaults resulting from possible default events within the next twelve months after the reporting date) or
  • the total loss expected over the remaining term of the instrument (present value of expected payment defaults arising from all possible default events over the financial instrument’s remaining term).

For trade receivables with and without a significant financing component, contract assets and leasing receivables, the need for impairment is always determined on the basis of the losses expected over the entire term. For all other instruments, impairments are only determined on the basis of the losses expected over the entire term if the credit risk has increased significantly since initial recognition. The assessment as to whether the risk of default has increased significantly is based on an increase in the probability of default since the date of acquisition. Macroeconomic forecasts (such as in relation to gross domestic product) are also taken into consideration in this analysis.

Otherwise, the impairment losses are determined solely on the basis of the expected losses that would result from a loss event occurring within twelve months of the reporting date. In this case, loss events that may occur later than twelve months after the balance sheet date are consequently not taken into consideration.

The credit quality of a financial asset is impaired if one or more events have occurred that have an adverse effect on the expected future cash flows. This includes observable data that has become known about subsequent events:

  • significant financial difficulties on the part of the issuer or debtor,
  • a breach of contract such as default or delay in interest or principal payments,
  • concessions that the lender makes to the borrower for financial or contractual reasons relating to the borrower’s financial difficulties; but would not otherwise grant,
  • an increased probability that the borrower will enter bankruptcy or other reorganization proceedings,
  • the disappearance of an active market for this financial asset due to financial difficulties,
  • the purchase or issue of a financial asset with a high discount reflecting the credit losses incurred.

A value adjustment table is applied for trade receivables, which determines the losses expected over the remaining term as a flat-rate percentage depending on the length of the overdue period. Irrecoverable receivables are written off at the time when the Group becomes aware that the receivable will probably be uncollectible.

Government grants

Monetary grants and other support payments for research and development projects are reported separately in the statement of comprehensive income as “research and development grant revenue”.

According to IAS 20, these government grants are only recognized at fair value if satisfactory evidence exists that the grant conditions are met, and the grants will be paid. Grants are recognized in profit and loss in the reporting period during which the costs related to the respective grants were incurred. Receivables from grants that have not yet been settled are reported as trade receivables, as the underlying research and development activities form a significant element of the range of work and service of the BRAIN Biotech Group.

Investment subsidies and grants for assets are not deducted from the costs of acquiring the respective assets but are instead recognized as deferred income. Such deferred income is recognized as income in line with the depreciation or amortization of the corresponding assets and is reported in the statement of comprehensive income under other income.


To classify financial instruments that are not to be settled in BRAIN Biotech AG equity instruments as either equity or debt capital, it is essential to assess whether a payment obligation exists for BRAIN Biotech AG. A financial liability always exists if BRAIN Biotech AG is not entitled to avoid rendering liquid assets or realizing an exchange in the form of other financial assets in order to settle the obligation.

Costs directly attributable to the issuance of new shares are shown in equity as a deduction from the income received from the issue. If a reporting date occurs between the date on which the costs are incurred and the actual performance of the equity transaction, in other words, an inflow of issue proceeds, the deductible transaction costs accruing in the reporting period are initially recognized under assets as prepaid items and are not offset against equity (capital reserves) until the capital increase is recognized on the balance sheet.


Provisions are recognized for all identifiable present obligations to third parties arising from past events, whose settlement is expected to result in an outflow of resources and whose amount can be reliably estimated. They are recognized at the expected settlement amount. If the outflow of resources is expected to occur at a date after the year following the reporting period, the obligations are recognized at their present value. In the case of a lower level of discounting, the interest effects are recorded in finance costs.

Occupational pension scheme/employee benefits

The occupational pension scheme at BRAIN includes both defined contribution plans as well as defined benefit plans.

In addition to the statutory pension insurance systems, occupational pensions at BRAIN Biotech AG, AnalytiCon Discovery GmbH, Biocatalysts Ltd. and WeissBioTech GmbH utilize direct insurance policies and payments into pension funds and private pension schemes (direct contribution commitment). Pension schemes also exist for two former members of the Management Board of BRAIN Biotech AG. These schemes are managed and funded through an occupational pension plan (Unterstützungskasse) (direct benefit commitment).

Payments for defined contribution pension schemes are expensed under personnel expenses if the employees have rendered the work entitling them to said contributions. Contributions to government pension plans are treated in the same way as payments for defined contribution plans.

A defined contribution plan exists in Germany for all employees at Group companies within the framework of the German statutory pension insurance into which the employer must pay. The amount to be paid is determined according to the current applicable contribution rate of 9.30 % (employer contribution) with regard to the employee compensation subject to compulsory pension insurance. In the USA, the employer contribution to social security is 6.2 % in relation to annual employee compensation of USD 160,200. In addition, BRAIN offers a company pension scheme in the form of deferred compensation without topping-up contributions by the employer.

A defined benefit plan exists for two former Management Board members in the form of benefit commitments by the company. The benefit entitlements consist of an old-age pension from the age of 65 as well as surviving dependents’ and invalidity benefits. To reinsure pension commitments, the company pays contributions to an external occupational pension plan. In turn, the occupational pension plan has taken out pension liability insurance cover. The claims under the pension liability insurance have been assigned to the occupational pension plan beneficiaries.

The pension obligation is measured applying actuarial methods in accordance with IAS 19. The calculations are essentially based on statistical data relating to mortality and disability rates, assumptions about the discount rates as well as expected return on plan assets. The determination of the interest rate and the expected plan assets is based on yields on AA-rated corporate bonds corresponding to the respective term. As part of accounting, the fair value of plan assets is deducted from the present value of the benefit obligation for pensions. The valuation of the benefit obligation for pensions and the plan assets is undertaken annually by means of actuarial reports as at the reporting date.

Revaluations that resulted in particular from the adjustment of actuarial assumptions are recognized directly in equity (retained earnings) via other comprehensive income without affecting the operating result.

Employee Stock Ownership Program (ESOP)

The following ESOP programs are in place to incentivize and retain managers and employees of BRAIN Biotech AG over the long term:

  • on 8 June 2018, an Employee Stock Ownership Program (ESOP 2017/18) for the 2017/18 financial year,
  • on 12 March 2019, an Employee Stock Ownership Program (ESOP 2018/19) for the 2018/19, 2019/20, 2020/21, 2021/22 and 2022/23 financial years,
  • on 8 March 2023, an Employee Stock Ownership Program (ESOP 2023).

As part of ESOP 2018/19, further options were issued in the 2022/23 financial year on 1 October 2022 by way of exception (in particular for the newly appointed Chief Financial Officer). As part of ESOP 2023, further options were issued as planned in the 2022/23 financial year on 20 September 2023 and on 27 September 2023. Managers and employees as well as the Management Board members of BRAIN Biotech AG participate in all ESOPs.

The ESOP 2017/18 stock option program is based on the AGM resolution of 8 July 2015 to set up a stock option program and create Conditional Capital 2015/II. The ESOP 2018/19 stock option program is based on the AGM resolution of 7 March 2019 to set up a stock option program and create Conditional Capital 2019/I. The ESOP 2023 stock option program is based on the AGM resolution of 8 March 2023 to set up a stock option program and create Conditional Capital 2023/II.

As part of exercise, one option entitles to the purchase of one share in the company at the so-called exercise price. The exercise price corresponds to an average of the share price ten trading days (for ESOP 2017/18 and ESOP 2018/19) or 30 trading days (for ESOP 2022/23) before the contractual grant date.

Along with the share price performance targets (performance condition), the exercising of options is also conditional upon the respective beneficiary remaining at the company (service condition). Taking fulfilment of both the service and performance conditions into consideration, the options can be exercised at the earliest at the end of four years after the grant date (waiting period). The exercise period for ESOP 2018/19 is four years after expiry of the four-year waiting period and for ESOP 2023 two years after expiry of the four-year waiting period.

From the ESOP 2018/19 onwards, a cap amount is also applied to the Management Board members’ options, which limits the options’ maximum value. The ESOP 2017/18 and ESOP 2023 only provide for such a cap for Management Board members.

The options are to be recognized in accordance with the provisions of IFRS 2 “Share-based Payment” and are to be classified as equity-settled share-based payment transactions.

As a matter of principle, the fair value of the options is measured once at the grant date using a Monte Carlo simulation, and taking into consideration the terms and conditions upon which the options were granted.

The volatility applied over the remaining option term reflects historical volatility derived from peer group data, and appropriate to the remaining term. The expected volatility applied is based on the assumption that conclusions can be drawn from historical volatility about future trends. The volatility that actually occurs can differ from the assumptions made. The expected dividend yield is based on management estimates as well as market expectations. The risk-free interest rate is based on German government bond yields with congruent maturities. Due to the contractual structure, the management has made assumptions about expected exercise dates and payments. The actual exercise dates can differ from the assumptions that have been made.

For BRAIN Biotech AG, exercise of the subscription rights entails no effect on its cash position or treasury share position, as no obligation of any kind exists for the company to deliver shares or cash payments in connection with these programs. As the company receives the consideration in the form of work and similar service, a personnel expense for these share-based payment schemes is recognized pursuant to IFRS 2.

Current and deferred taxes

The expense for the period consists of current and deferred taxes. Taxes are recognized in the income statement unless they relate to items that were recognized directly in equity or in other comprehensive income. In such cases, the taxes are also recognized directly in equity or in other comprehensive income.

The current tax expense is calculated applying the tax rates that have been enacted as at the reporting date (or are soon to be enacted) in the countries where the company and its subsidiaries are active and generate taxable income. The Management Board regularly reviews tax returns, in particular with regard to matters for which differing interpretations are possible, and recognizes income tax liabilities (if appropriate) based on the amounts expected to be paid to the tax authorities.

Deferred taxes are calculated using the balance sheet liability method. Deferred taxes are recognized in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities on the IFRS balance sheet and their tax base, as well for differences resulting from consolidation adjustments.

In addition, deferred tax assets are recognized for the future tax benefit that arises from offsetting tax loss carryforwards against future taxable profit, to the extent that it is probable that such assets are expected to be recoverable, based on the company’s tax projections.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if a legally enforceable right of offset exists and they relate to income taxes levied by same tax authority on the same taxable entity or the taxable entities intend to settle net.

Deferred tax assets or liabilities are reported as non-current assets or liabilities irrespective of the balance sheet classification by maturity.


A lease is an agreement that gives the right to control the use of an identified asset for a specified period of time in return for payment of a consideration. Lease agreements exist at BRAIN Biotech AG as lessee, in particular in connection with real estate, technical plant and equipment, and vehicles. The BRAIN Biotech Group does not act as a lessor.

As a lessee, BRAIN Biotech AG now accounts for all leases and recognizes rights-of-use to assets and liabilities arising from leases in accordance with the following principles:

  • BRAIN Biotech AG utilizes the option not to recognize leases for intangible assets as part of IFRS 16.
  • BRAIN Biotech AG applies the exemptions in connection with lease agreements with a maximum term of twelve months from the date of delivery of the asset, as well as low-value assets. Leased assets with a maximum value of USD 5,000 were defined as low-value assets. Lease payments for short-term leases and for leases for low-value assets are expensed straight-line over the lease term.
  • For leases, use is generally made of the option of not separating lease and non-lease components. Lease and non-lease components are separated only for leases of land and buildings.
  • In determining the term of leases, the exercise of existing renewal or termination options is estimated on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration factors such as location strategies, leasehold improvements, and degree of specificity.
  • Lease liabilities are measured at the present value of the remaining lease payments. As a rule, the marginal borrowing rate is used because the interest rate underlying the lease cannot be readily determined. BRAIN Biotech AG applies the repayment model in order to determine the current portion of the lease liability. The current portion of the lease liabilities corresponds to the repayment portion of the next twelve months.
  • On the date of addition, the right-of-use is generally capitalized in the same amount as the lease liability. Differences may arise if, for example, demolition/restoration obligations exist.
  • Subsequently, the right-of-use is generally depreciated on a straight-line basis over the lease term. However, if an existing call option has been assessed as sufficiently certain in relation to the probability of exercise, or if an automatic transfer of ownership occurs at the end of the contract term, depreciation is applied over the same period as is otherwise applied to corresponding assets of property, plant and equipment (see “Property, plant and equipment”).
  • If an existing lease is subsequently adjusted, the lease liability and the right-of-use asset must be remeasured if the contractual adjustment modifies the payment profile (in accordance with the interest and repayment schedule) or the scope of the right-of-use asset in terms of quantity or time.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash on hand, deposits held at call with banks, and time deposits with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value.

Statement of cash flows

The statement of cash flows is classified into cash flows from operating activities, investing activities and financing activities. Where appropriate, any mixed transactions may be allocated to more than one activity. Overall, income taxes are included in cash flows from operating activities.

Cash flows from operating activities are presented applying the indirect method, under which profit for the period after taxes is adjusted for non-cash results components as well as deferrals of past or future inflows and outflows (including provisions), as well as items of income and expense that are attributable to investing activities.